1848 Habsburg Revolution - Causes

Published: 2021-09-12 13:50:10
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1. Overpopulation and agricultural crisis
* 75% inhabitant lived in the countryside
* Bad harvests 1845-7

2. Urbanisation
* Migration of peasants to town - not enough work - unemployment

3. Nationalism
* Nationalist movements among Italians, Hungarians and Czechs - different political aims.
 Italians: full independent
 Czechs: self-rule
 Hungarians: some - full independent, most- self-rule

4. Liberalism
* Liberals-create a new constitution:
 Guaranteed civil rights
 Set up elected assembly - limit the emperor's power

 Started - France
 Overthrow of King Louis Philippe spread in Vienna- people hopes for change in Empire
 Threatened Chancellor Metternich - had an idea of military intervention-restore Louis-Philippe-lack of fund

 3 March - Lajos Kossuth made a speech in the Hungarian Diet- self government for Hungary
 Called for complete dismantling of the old system
 Copies of speech spread in Vienna

 12 March - university student drafted a petition - liberal reforms:
 Press freedom
 Jury trials
 Emancipation of serfs
 Constitutional government
 Presented to Archduke Ludwig - Emperor's uncle

 13 March - Austrian Diet - met to debate reforms proposals
 Students burst into the buildings - Diet break up
 Moved to the imperial palace - main target, Metternich
 Protest turns into riot -
 Emperor left with 2 alternatives: 1. Give in the people demands
2. Use forces to suppress the rioters
 Within the court - strong anti-Metternich faction led by Archduke John and Kolowrat
 To persuade the Emperor and Archduke Ludwig to remove the Chancellor

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