Biology 111 Exam 1 Key

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Exam ITEST FORM:  BBiology 110 – Fall 2014Dr. David H. BosINSTRUCTIONS:  There are 35 questions on this exam.  No calculators, cell phones, or other electronic devices are allowed.  Read each question carefully.  There is only one correct answer for each question. Choose the best answer.  Do not fill in multiple answers.  Turn in only the scantron sheet.   Keep the exam.  Take your time, think and good luck!A cell starts with 40 chromosomes (20 homologous pairs).  After DNA replication how many chromosomes does the cell have?20 (10 homologous pairs)40 (20 homologous pairs)80 (40 homologous pairs)40 but no homologous pairs of chromosomes—each is unique80 but no homologous pairs of chromosomes—each is uniqueWhich process describes cell division in prokaryotic organisms?MitosisMeiosisBinary fissionCytokinesisTelekinesisWhat is the term used to describe about 150 nucleotides of DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins?30-nm fiberChromosomeNucleosomeCentrosomeCentromereMeiotic cell division plays a key role in which biological processes?Reproduction of bacteriaGrowth and development of eukaryotic organismsWound healingResponses to environmental changesSexual reproductionDuring the G1 phase of the cell cycle, most of the DNA would be in what state of compaction?Loose (double helix)NucleosomeCentrosomeChromosome30-nm fiberDuring telophase of mitosis, how many DNA double helices make up a single chromosome?OneTwoFourEightJust two but they are substantially different from one anotherWhich of the following is true regarding chromosomes during different forms of cell division?The pairing of homologous chromosomes occurs in prophase of mitosis and not in meiosis Homologous chromosomes aren’t present in the same cell at the same time during mitosisThe pairing of homologous chromosomes occurs in prophase II of meiosis and not in mitosisHomologous chromosomes are more similar to each other than sister chromatids during all phases of mitosisNone of the above are trueCatenins are proteins that link one cell to another into unified tissues.  Loss of function mutations to catenins cause loss of contact inhibition.  Normally functioning catenins are best categorized as what type of protein?HistonesProto-oncogenesTumor suppressor genesoncogenes  CyclinDuring which phase of the cell cycle does the nuclear envelope reassemble?S phaseG1TelophaseProphaseG0Disruption of the signaling of growth factors will directly affect which of the cell cycle check points?G1G2AnaphaseTelophase checkpointNone of the checkpointsWhich of the following conditions is required to proceed from metaphase to anaphase?Cdc 20 is inactiveSecurin is activeAPC is inactiveCohesion is active (intact)Separase is activeWhich two processes are most similar compared to each other?Binary fission and meiosis IIMeiosis II and mitosisMeiosis I and mitosisMitosis and binary fissionMeiosis I and binary fissionA cell starts with 40 chromosomes (20 homologous pairs).  After meiosis I what is the arrangement of chromosomes in each cell?20 chromosomes; each with two identical chromatids20 chromosomes; each with one chromatid20 chromosomes; each with two nonidentical chromatids40 chromosomes; each with one chromatid40 chromosomes; each with two nonidentical chromatidsFlower position is a trait inherited in true Mendelian fashion; A = axial, a = terminal.  What is the genotype of a pea plant with axial flowers if a test cross with that pea plant yields offspring, all of which have axial flowers?AAAaaaany of the abovenone of the aboveAt what point of cell division are the nuclei of cells undergoing meiosis first considered haploid nuclei?After meiosis II and cytokinesisAfter DNA replicationAfter anaphase of meiosis IIAfter telophase of meiosis IAfter crossing over in meiosis IA toxin that prevented the formation of vesicles inside of a cell would most disrupt which process?Cytokinesis in bacteria and plants Cytokinesis in bacteriaCytokinesis in animals and plants Cytokinesis in plants Cytokinesis in animals What do we mean when we use the terms monohybrid cross and dihybrid cross?A monohybrid cross involves a single parent, whereas a dihybrid cross involves two parentsA monohybrid cross produces a single progeny, whereas a dihybrid cross produces two progenyA dihybrid cross involves organisms that are heterozygous for two characters, and a monohybrid cross involves only oneA monohybrid cross is performed for one generation, whereas a dihybrid cross is performed for two generationsA monohybrid cross results in a 9:3:3:1 ratio, whereas a dihybrid cross gives a 3:1 ratioWhat was the most significant conclusion that Gregor Mendel drew from his experiments with pea plants?There is considerable genetic variation in garden peasTraits are inherited in discrete units, and are not the results of "blending"Recessive genes occur more frequently in the F1 generation than do dominant onesGenes are composed of DNAAn organism that is homozygous for many recessive traits is at a disadvantageWhich of the following differentiates between independent assortment and segregation?The law of independent assortment requires describing two or more genes relative to one anotherThe law of segregation requires describing two or more genes relative to one anotherThe law of segregation requires having two or more generations to describeThe law of independent assortment is accounted for by observations of prophase IThe law of segregation is accounted for by anaphase of mitosisTwo plants are crossed, resulting in offspring with a 3:1 ratio for a particular trait. What does this suggest?that the parents were true-breeding for contrasting traitsthat the trait shows incomplete dominancethat a blending of traits has occurredthat the parents were both heterozygous for a single traitthat each offspring has the same alleles for each of two traitsMales are more often affected by sex-linked traits than females becausemale hormones such as testosterone often alter the effects of mutations on the X chromosomefemale hormones such as estrogen often compensate for the effects of mutations on the X chromosomeX chromosomes in males generally have more mutations than X chromosomes in femalesmales are hemizygous for the X chromosomemutations on the Y chromosome often worsen the effects of X-linked mutationsWhat is the probability of the genotype aaBBcc appearing in the offspring a Mendelian cross of parents with the genotypes aaBbCc x aaBbcc?1/21/641/41/81/16In cattle, roan coat color (mixed red and white hairs) occurs in the heterozygous (Rr) offspring of red (RR) and white (rr) homozygotes. Which of the following crosses would produce offspring in the ratio of 1 red:2 roan:1 white?red × whiteroan × roanwhite × roanred × roanThe answer cannot be determined from the information providedCystic fibrosis results from a single gene mutation and affects the lungs, the pancreas, the digestive system, and other organs, resulting in symptoms ranging from breathing difficulties to recurrent infections. Which of the following terms best describes this?incomplete dominancemultiple allelespleiotropyepistasiscodominanceA woman who has blood type A has a daughter who is type O and a son who is type B.  Which of the following is a possible partial genotype for the son?IBIBIBIAiiIBiIAIAWhen Thomas Hunt Morgan crossed his red-eyed F1 generation flies to each other, the F2 generation included both red- and white-eyed flies. Remarkably, all the white-eyed flies were male. What was the explanation for this result?The gene involved is on the Y chromosomeThe gene involved is on the X chromosomeThe gene involved is on an autosome, but only in malesOther male-specific factors influence eye color in fliesOther female-specific factors influence eye color in fliesUse the following information to answer Questions 27 - 29:

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